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   Neoformations for Tolkien's Languages   
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Adunaic    ————

BEHIND  —  postp  —  *-nadad    [NAD] : cp. -dalad
BITE  —  v  —  *zakh- [*zamakh-]    [Eld. NAK] : the 'infixed' */m/ in #2 : from equating GIM'L and Eld. ÑGIL (Etym: GIL)
BRING  —  v tr  —  *nakhad- vs. *ank(h)a-dâ-    [NAKH/?NAK] : per Semitic equivalency (Derived stem verb < 'to come'); so also in Q.
CO-, TOGETHER  —  pref  —  *(z)ama-, *aga-/ugu-    [Eld. SAM; -mâ "with"; agath (S gwâ-th, lookalike gwa- = WŌ)]
COMING, ARRIVAL  —  n  —  *anakh, *nâkh    [NAKH] : shortest action-implying noun : SD:426 (rûkh)
CONTAIN  —  v tr  —  *zê-kan- vs. *z(â)i-kan-    [#ZAY/ZI; KAN]
CONVINCE; HAVE STH APPROVED  —  v  —  *sayad- vs. *asyadâ-    [#SAY (in sâi-bêth) + -dâ-]
COTTAGE, ANY SMALL HOUSE  —  n  —  *mîzadan; *zad(a)nil    [MIYI; #ZAD; #-il]
COUNT, RECKON  —  v  —  *zath-/zuth-    [Eld. NOT] : Eld. /n-/ = Ad. /z-/ as in the words for 'female' and 'fire'; Eld. /-t/ = Ad. /-th/ as in KWET = BITH
CRAVING, (SINGLE) WISH  —  n  —  *zêr    [ZIR]
CUP  —  n  —  *zulum, *zul-/zôl-uk, *zôlik    [for Q yulma (in view of SD:419, &c.)] : cp. Q tar-ma = Ad. târik
DAY  —  n  —  *(ûru)bâil; *(h)ên, -i / *(h)âyan; *thû-khu/-ku, *thôkhi    [#BAY'L; *(H)AY'N; *THUKH/K] : *(H)AY'N <= Eld. aur-; *THUKH/K < Eld. KAL by mimicking the sound-correspondences in nakh- = Q tul- (or sakal = falass-) and W thar(a)n = Eld. KAN-AT, Ad. thâni = Q kén-, Qe. kē̆mi
DESERT, SOLITUDE  —  n  —  *âyar    [ʔIR, *ʔAY'R]  
DOMESTIC, OF THE HOUSE  —  adj  —  *anzadā̆ni    [< zadan]
DOUBLE-MASTED  —  adj  —  *sattasulumôn    [satta + sulum]
DWARF  —  n  —  *ranâk (colloq. *kanā̆r?); *nulū̆k    [*RAN'K (> W, metat.); *NUL'K]
DWELL, INHABIT  —  v  —  #ab-; *bun-    [#ʔAB (of aban) / *BUN = Eld. MBAR (see REASON)] : the stem #ab- would benefit from a triconsonantal variant (or a synonym like *bun-) as its Nomen Agentis would be confusable with the abstract noun abâr (SD:431)
EASTERN  —  adj  —  *anazûli    [#ZUL]
EAT  —  v tr  —  *p(h)ath- ~ *p(h)uruth-    [for Eld. MAT] : consider KWET = bith-; , mal-t-, aman- = , phar-az, aphan; NUK = W naRag-
ELDER DAY(S) (Q yalúmë, yárë)  —  n  —  *tâyu    [#TA'Y (in tâidô) — also cp. Qe. 'ago']
ELVEN, ELVISH  —  adj  —  *annimī̆ri    [< nimir]
ELVEN MAN / WOMAN  —  n  —  (m) *ne/nimr-û (); (f) *ne/nimr-î ()    [NIM'R]
END-POINT  —  n  —  *nêki(k) / *nîka / *inêg    [W -neg (-nec)] : cp. etymologies of similar monosyllabic nouns (in Frankish/OSax./OHG, Catalan & Friulian)
EQUINE  —  adj  —  *ankarā̆bi    [< karab]
EXPERIENCE vs. LEARN (WISDOM)  —  v  —  *mabar- vs. *mak(h)ar-    [*MAB'R/*MAK(H)'R (< PM:50)] : per the sound-history of Cat. faula, taula (#1) vs. maurar, feu (#2)
FALSEHOOD, DECEPTION  —  n  —  *asna / *usnu    [< (Early) Eld. FURU (LT2:340)] : per sakal ?= falassë etc. (see REASON)
FIRST; FRONTAL  —  adj  —  *an-âub-i    [#ˀAW'B (in ob-roth)] : an- vs. stat. *ziy-, dat. #(n)ud- (et sim!) Egyptian ḥ-ˀ-t-j, MLat. frontalis
FOOLISH  —  adj  —  *an-nîphi / *-nâiphi    [< #NIPH]
FOOT  —  n  —  *bata; *bâtik (du. -ā̆t); *nu-khu/-ku    [#BAT (pro ?TAN); *NUKH/K (< TAL)]
FORM, SHAPE  —  n  —  *danak    [Q canta] : in imitation of the possible origin of balak (< Q calpa?)
FRESH, 'GREEN'  —  adj  —  *kôkh-a, -i (k- vs. (k)h- [LAS], y-¹)    [for Eld. LÁY-AK] : see explanation following METAL ¹ if YAD = Eld. LED (and not BAT &c.)
FRONT; BEING IN FRONT  —  n  —  *ub-al, -ul; *âub(a)    [ʔUB, ʔAW'B (from ob-roth)]
FRONT: IN FRONT OF  —  postp  —  *-(â)ubad vs. *-obad    [see above] : cp. -dalad
GULL, SEAGULL  —  n  —  *(ph-, p-)êub    [*P(H)IW'B vs. *ʔIW'B < Eld. MIW, *maiwē] : per , phar-az, aphan = , mal-t-, aman- (vs. _urug = Eld. MOR-OK), bawā̆b = Eld. WAIWA, and the vocalisations in SD pp. 424, 426
HAMMER  —  n  —  *tâmik vs. *tamr-ak, -aph    [#TAM / #TAMAR] : cp. NIMIR in SD:416, with -(V)R belonging to the action root and not being the Agent Noun suffix
HEAD or KNOLL  —  n  —  *anyak(h); *n/zakal [a / u]    [< Eld. NDOL] : csd. zâyan (= NDOR) [but here #1 showing the vowel-pattern of igmil], sakal (= SOL, SOLOS?) — the primary consonant's model in #2 being /n-/ : nûlu, zinî (NDIS assumably reversed) vs. /z-/ : zâyan (= NDOR), #za- (= NDU)
HEAL, CURE  —  v tr  —  *(kêu-)nizid-    [< Eld. KEW + S nesta-] : Eld. KEW = Ad. *RIW ? (whence *rêw- / *(ê)riw- [cp. êphal] > W ri(o)- [in ribadyan] in light of Occitano-Romance [& OSax.] sound-history : De B. Moll, "Catalana" [1952] § 86 / § 389)
HEAR, LISTEN (TO)  —  v tr  —  #huz-, *uhzurâ-    [HUZ('N)]  
HERE(AT)  —  adv  —  *î-zê vs. *ê-zê    [#ʔIY (in îdô "now") = Eld. SI ?]
HORIZON  —  n  —  *minul-sakal/-sakla    [MIN'L; SAK'L] : Finn. taivaan-ranta (id.)
HUMANE  —  adj  —  *anâni    [#ʔAN (of anâ]
INFANT  —  n  —  *miy-â (m. -ô/-û, f. -ê/-î)    [MIYI (with the pattern of anâ)]
ISLAND  —  n  —  *nakal/nukul    [Eld. TOL] : if sakal is actually <= Eld. SOL
KNIGHT  —  n  —  *karabnardû    [karab + nardû]
LADY  —  n  —  *barâth    [< bâr "lord"]
LARGE, GREAT  —  adj  —  *ut(h)ungi / *tunuga¹ / *tuk(h)una¹    [W tung] : since the W form is not *tong (with suffixial a-affection), an izindi-type Ad. form (i.e., #1) seems the most preferable ¹ an attested example of this adj-type is buruda (SD:312)
LEAF  —  n  —  *ahza (pl. *ahîz); *apthan (-pth-, -fth-), *pâth(il)    [#1 < LAS; #2 & #3 < Val. #pathân (WJ:401)]
LORDSHIP, DOMINATION  —  n  —  *ukhū̆r vs. *khâur(a)    [#KHUR/KHAW'R (in khôr)]
LUNG; MIDRIFF  —  n  —  *puh-un, -ur; *pôhik    [PUH]
LYING (SWH); WHEREABOUTS  —  n  —  *akhâi    [KHAY]
LYRICS: ASSIGN ~ OR WORDS TO  —  v  —  *ivthidâ- vs. *bêthudâ-    [BITH]
MARITIME, PELAGIC  —  adj  —  *anazā̆ri    [< azar-/azra]
METAL  —  n  —  *lâyath/layâth; *k(h)an-az (-ab)    [#1 < Eld. RAWT (RAUTĀ); #2 < EarlyE. sink- (model balak ?= kalpa) or lan-u ("lead")] : with #1 cp. LAW'K(H) (lôkh-) = RAYAK, ZAY'N = 'NDAW'R' (NDOR)
MORTAL, PERISHABLE  —  adj  —  *dalagâni vs. *adagâni    [#GAN]
MORTAL (PERSON)  —  n  —  *ganân/r; *gâniph; *dalagân    [#GAN; #DAL] : *gân-iph ?= Q fír-ima ('wán-ima')
MOUTH vs. TONGUE  —  n  —  *bith-un, -in, *bêthik    [BITH]
NAME, APPELLATION  —  n  —  *êz(i) (*izith, *azath, *âz) vs. *zêph(i)    [(Q essë >) *ˀIZ vs. *ZIPH : #nuph- = ONO-] : with *izith / azath cp. also S en-eth; whereas the monosyllabic potentials would resemble Biblical Semitic (and be rather Tolkien-like minimalisations..)
NEXT TO, BESIDE  —  prep  —  *pânud (a)n    [w/ á la Hebrew, Aramaic (le-yad, ʕal yad)]
NINE  —  num  —  *zinath ~ *zirad    [< *NERET < Eld. NETER] : "metathesis" as in (a.o.) OT-OS = HAZ-D; /n-/ = /z-/ : S naur = Ad. ZAW'R ; the vowels : SD:414
NURSE (TO HEALTH), cūrāre  —  v tr  —  #zawar-    [#1 < #ZAW'R (of zôrî)]
PAIN, HURTING  —  n  —  *zâukh(a) vs. *uzûkh/uzôkh (*azwakh, *zôkhar)    [< NÁY-AK, NAYKA] : cp. lôkh- (LAW'KH) = RÁY-AK, etc.
PALANTÍR, SEEING-STONE  —  n  —  *êphal-, *êph(al)at-tudân, -tôdik    [YAPH('L) / ʔIPH('L) / ʔAY'PH; TUD] : pro e.g. (unt.. >) *uttud-ân, -ak, *nutuda if the root TUD is pre-Westron, sim. to pre-Saxonic *gud- ..at = ..ad(a) phonetically assimilated (as in aban-târik)
PALE, SICKLY  —  adj  —  *kh/kôb-a, -i (pro *kh/kawaba) vs. *kh/kaz(a)b-    [< Eld. *laiwā] : cp. bawâb = WAIWA, azar, azra = AYAR
PEACE, CALM  —  n  —  *bâmal ~ *bêm-il (-al)    [< Gn. gwilm] : cp. Gn. gilm ≈ GIMIL, &al. (/(g)w-/ > */b-/ : bawâb) abstract noun vocalisation : *dāwar (SD:423)
PLACE  —  n  —  *khâya(l); *p/phôn(i) [n/d!]; *zêph(i)    [< #KHAY, Q men, Q nómë (resp.)]
PLOUGH; RUDDER  —  n  —  *rôthik; *ruth-ak, -uk    [RUTH]  
POISE  —  v  —  #zidir-, *izdirâ-    [< zidar (SD:200)]
POSSESSION (SINGLE)  —  n  —  *aknê/akhnê    [KAN]
PRECEDE, COME/GO BEFORE  —  v  —  *awab-/ub(ud)-    [ʔUB, ʔAW'B (in ob-roth)]
PRODUCT, HANDIWORK  —  n  —  *amgê    [#MAG (in Balku-magân)]
PUT, PLACE  —  v  —  *akhyadâ- (n +ppos?); *(n)ap(-ad)-; *bur(un)-    [#1 < #KHAY] : with #2 cp. NIT (= TIN-tā-), ZI-G (= IS), ZIN (= NIS) and Gn. pâ-, panta- "to put" #3 from PAN is a curious coincidental result (echoes similitude of Lat. pono, pondus)
QUEEN  —  n  —  *âr-î, -ê; *arâth    [ʔAR]
REASON, CAUSE  —  n  —  *sarâ(b), *sârik ~ *san-â(b)¹, -ar    [< Eld. KYAR (see SD:418-9 & entry CUP above)] : ¹ Eld. /-r/ = Ad. /-n/ (BEW'R = BAY'N, GAR = KAN, PER = BAN, ÑGUR = GAN)
RETURN  —  v intr  —  *nad(ad)yad-, *nad(ad)nakh-    [NAD; YAD; NAKH] : 'zurück-gehen, -kommen'
ROUNDNESS  —  n  —  *thâin(a) / *thâyan, *athyan(-êth¹, -a/iyê, *-ā̆z(î)¹) (vs. an abstract derivation from *THUR('D,'G), *THUN('D,'G), *THAK'N,'R ²)    [Eld. KOR] : ¹ morphosemantically, Ad. #-êth = Arab. -īya(t-), Lat. -ia [whereas *-ā̆z(î) < Q -ussë, -(e)ssë]; another theoretical abstract noun suffix would be *-kâth / *-kê (with dem. ka-) : Sanskrit f. -tā / -tva — though #-a/iyê (?with dem. î-/iy-) might already be the (attested!) equivalent ² anticipations in light of urud (OR), ban- (PER) and sakal (?= SOL), respectively
RUMOUR, WHAT IS HEARD  —  n  —  *uhzê    [#HUZ('N)]
SAYING, PROVERB  —  n  —  *bîthân; *ibthê/ivthê    [BITH] : with #1 cp. Q quenna (PE19:86), Lat. dictum
SECRET(IVE)  —  adj  —  *an(a)-khâud-i / *an-ukhôd-i / *nukhôda    [back-formations from nahald, owing to Andreas Möhn's sound-shift theory (Words of Westernesse pp. 99-100)]
SLEEP, SLUMBER  —  n  —  *akhâr vs. *ukhû-r, -n, *khâi-r, -n    [< Eld. LOR] : per abâr ?= BOR, #urud = *or(o)tō, ban- = PER, etc.
SPEAKING, SPEECH  —  n/vn  —  *pha(t)r-ê(u)¹/-ayê [Q -ië] ~ *phâr-anu-/-ina-²    [*PHA(T')R (W phârë)] : with all forms, compare the etymology of Old Saxon -e in Orel, "Handbook" p. 152 — keeping also in mind the presence of a /-t-/ in the sound-history of Catalan pare, frare ¹ cp. De B. Moll, "Catalana" §§ 51 ² -e < -anu-, -inu- in Catalan: De B. Moll §§ 80, 81 etc.; -e < -ina- in Old Saxon: Orel p. 415
STAR-SHAPED  —  adj  —  *igmilôn    [GIM'L]
STAY, ABIDE  —  v intr  —  #kad-    [#KAD (could kadar be a misreading for *kadan ?] : cp. Westron -gad in the name Ranugad
STORAGE, WAREHOUSE  —  n  —  *(a)kânu+zadan    [KAN; #ZAD]
SUNNY, SUNLIT  —  adj  —  *ûriyôn    [ʔUR]
SUPPORT  —  n  —  *atā̆r    [#TAR (SD:429)]
TEN  —  num  —  #thôn (or *thâun)    [#THAW'N, Eld. KAYAN/KAYAR] : the expected phonetic counterpart of the Eldarin stems (plus a plausible explanation for Zimrathôn) — Eld. /k-/ = Ad. /th-/ as in thâni (early Q kén, kē̆mi) & the words for '4'; concerning the rest see analysis after METAL
THERE(AT)  —  adv  —  *(h)azê    [cntr. 'thither' = *(h)ā̆da]
THREE  —  num  —  *zîkh- / *zidak/kh    [< Eld. NEL, *NEDEL < NELED] : #2 with 'metathesis' as in hazid/hazad = OT-OS; see note on NINE
THROUGH: GO ~, PIERCE  —  v  —  *tan-, *tawan- [Qe. pere-], *tan-yad- (..ô)    [< Eld. TER (model PER = BAN)]
TUNNEL  —  n  —  *dal(ô)batân    [#DAL; #BAT]
UNIT, SINGLE NUMBER  —  n  —  *îri [< *i'ri : SD:427]; *ir-id, -da [Q erdë]; *ir-a [-(an)â = "an individual"]    [ʔIR]
UNIVERSE,   —  (pr) n  —  *Akthā̆    [#KATH]
URBAN  —  adj  —  *ankadā̆ri    [< kadar]
VILLAGE  —  n  —  *rā̆na(n) / *arân(-a) / *râgin    [W rân id. (PM:49)] : cp. the etymologies of Continental Germanic noun type /Ca:C/
WALKER  —  n  —  *batā̆r vs. *tanā̆r    [#BAT / #TAN] : as batân might also be a noun derived similarly to Arab. ma+kān — cf. the accompanying examples of the noun category in SD:431-2!
YES  —  intj  —  *sâi vs. *    [#SAY] : cp. the very similar Q sië and the meaning of Ad. sâi-bêth



Khuzdul    ————

BALDNESS, BARE(D)NESS  —  n  —  *ashrâb; *shurb(a) vs. "Hebraic" *shu/shôrab    [Sh-R-B] : for vocalisation #2, see Note on LARGENESS
BLACK DOMAIN, MORDOR  —  n/pr n  —  *Nirgîn; *Nârag    [N-R-G] : #1 by using the vocalisation of #khizdîn (as interpreted by Salo for *zibdîn)
BOW, LOWER ONESELF  —  v intr/refl  —  *sa-/si-dabban-    [D-B-N] : from associating Kh. duban with Eld. TUB, or from forms listed with (N)DUB — regarding formation of the verb, see note on STREAM
BOWSTRING  —  n  —  *durg- / *hurg-    ['<' S. tang] : from equating Kh. turg and S. fang #2 is possible if #hund = S. tund Ad notam: In Hebrew (Ps. 11:2), the word for 'bowstring' has the same vocalisation as 'horn' (Kh. inbar)
BRANCH  —  n  —  *mabn / *khabl/khubl / *kharb / *ikhbal (*imban)    [Eld. OLOB] : /l-/ > /m-/ : see explanation on HEAVY; /+n/ <= Arabic & STAFF (q.v.); /o-/ > /khV-/ per OTOS = Kh-Z-D; metathesis per ki-bil = S ce-leb; with *kharb cp. bark = *PELEK; the non-initial Eld. /b/ is kept unswitched as in kibil, duban (?= *tub-n-)
BUILDER  —  n  —  *uzhā̆r    [Z-H-R] : relies on the analysis that zahar is the element meaning "bold, building" in the name Tumunzahar
CAUSE, BRING ABOUT  —  root  —  *k-r-b / *k-b-r (stem vowel /a/ or /u/)    ['<' KYAR] : based on the equations #zar(a)b- = SAR, kibil = KYELEP; also note Gabilân = Gelion and the /r/ in the isolatable (presumably triconsonantal) Kh. stem #Z-H-R (of zahar)
COMING, ARRIVAL  —  n  —  *nûkh / *anôkh    [*N-W-Kh / *ʔ-N-Kh] : "attested morphology" like versions of khuzdulfordurins.wordpress.com's *nîkh (id.), itself being obviously based on Ad. nakh- (to come) — with *nûkh cp. Kh. dûm & the Arabic vn. type ṭūl (< ṭ-w-l)
DEFEND; FORTIFY  —  root  —  #g-th-l    [#G-Th-L] : from the noun gathō̆l "fortress" = S. garth : v. gartha- "keep, defend"
DESTINE, DOOM  —  root  —  #d-b-r (#h-b-r) / #b-d-r    [(id.)] : from Eld. MBARAT via metathesis (of type 'kibil' in #3), based on the similarity of MBELEK (S. beleg) and Kh. #G-B-L (gabil) — /t/ (Stop) > /d/ (Soft) in the pairing CE *tub-nā ?= Kh. duban; however in #2 /t-/ = /h-/ per N. tund = Kh. #hund which solves the "problem" of similarity with #D-B-N (*'lie low, deep') — though sharing of radicals does occur in (semantically unrelated) zâram, #zarab- !
FAT, CORPULENT  —  adj  —  *shab-al, -il    ['<' Early Eldarin] : per interpretations of #shar(a)b = S. paran, turg = S. fang and an identical metathesis in kibil = celeb
GLASS (FOR DRINKING)  —  n  —  *kalk, -î(s); *ikhlad    [#1 < Q; #2 < #Kh-L-D] : #1 : even vocalically, Q calca fits well as a word to be loaned, given the pattern /1a23-/ in Kh. bark & the Arabic for "drinking-glass", kaˀs (which is also not from any root meaning "to drink") #2 obviously sports the "unique (tangible) feature" vocalisation of inbar — conveniently, Finnish would display a parallel correlation in sarvi; lasi
GOVERNANCE, GOVERNMENT  —  n  —  *zabō̆d    [Z-B-D]
HEAVY  —  adj  —  *mar-ag ~ *mar-ik    ['<' S. long (OS *lunga)] : based on the equations turg = fang, baraz = born / caran, #thark = Gn. bang; /l-/ => /m-/ after the 2nd pers. pronoun
ICE, GLASSIFIED THING  —  n  —  *makhald    [Kh-L-D]
INSCRIPTION (also as an action)  —  n  —  *zar-ob (prop. -ôb?)    [Z-R-B]
INK, BLACK SUBSTANCE  —  n  —  *nereg    [N-R-G] : cp. OEng. blæc, Fi. muste (id.)
IRON  —  n  —  *(C)urug    ['<' S. ang] : see explanation above || a "disassociative" primary (C)onsonant would most likely be /z-/ (see entry SINGLE), /kH-/, /š-/ (compare e.g. Q. atta = Ad. satta) or /y-/ (< Semitic: e.g. Aramaic ālowph = yālowph)
LARGENESS, SIZE  —  n  —  *agbâl; *gubl(a) vs. "Hebraic" *gu/gôbal    [G-B-L] : besides Salo's neo-Khuzdul (*buzra "abyss, depth"), the pattern /1u23a/ appears also in Arabic (e.g. wuṣla "connection; [Ir.] length")
LEADER, HEADMAN  —  n  —  *ubnā̆d    [B-N-D (vs. SH-Th-R?)] : Arabic raˀīs (< r-ʔ-s, the root of "head")
LENGTH  —  n  —  *asgân; *sugn(a) vs. "Hebraic" *su/sôgan    [S-G-N]
MAIN, PRINCIPAL  —  adj  —  *banad-ul (*-û/-ub, #-ā̆g)    [B-N-D (vs. SH-Th-R?)] : as in Semitic (with nisba adj. suffix)
NET, WEB  —  n  —  *nag(a)r, -a/-ī̆-    [*N-G-R] : from Eld. *raimā [taking into account also the vocalisations in Arabic, Hebrew (rεšεt) and in The Dwarrow Scholar's neo-language]; /m/ > /n/ per the juxtaposed inbar ?= rombā and nar-ag- ?= MOR
NORTH  —  n  —  *tubûn / *s/shubûn (-b- / -r-; -n / -d)    [*T-B-N / *S/SH-B-N] : from S. forod, based on Salo's equating of S. orod and Kh. #abad (PM:301) — the vocalisation of abad being irrelevant, since compass points are not geological entities (aut sim.)
OLD AGE, SENIORITY  —  n  —  *agmâl; *guml(a) vs. "Hebraic" *gu/gômal    [G-M-L]
PLURAL (3RD IMPERSONAL)  —  v suff  —  *-ûl / *-V:d    (#1) from the likening of Hebrew -ān and Kh. #-âl (Azaghâl) and adding Semitic -ū(n-) (plural verb marker) into the equation / (#2) from the ending of Khazâd & the value of the letter /d/ (four, "three or more") in Semitic and beyond; also the voicing of Q te
RED SUBSTANCE, i.e. BLOOD  —  n  —  *berez    [B-R-Z]
REED  —  n  —  *zikhs; *izkhā̆-l (-s)    [Eld. ESEK] : cp. rukhs < (U)RUK (WJ:389-391); with #2 cp. Hebrew agmōn [ˀ-g-m +w-n] and Aramaic arbān (id.)
SECRET, MYSTERIOUS  —  adj  —  *ram-ib, -ab    [*R-M-B] : from Gn. ruim (id.); cf. the phonetic and semantic similarity in Gn. glum (c. 1920: "burdened, dull, heavy") and Kh. gamil ("old")
SINGLE, 'LONELY'  —  adj  —  *(kh-, z-)abir / *(kh)arib    ['<' S. ereb] : Kh. kibil = S. celeb; zirak ?= EREK ; vocalisation /1a2i3/ or /1a2a3/ per actual sg. adjectives gabil, baraz et al.
SPEECH, WORDING  —  n ("inf. abs.")  —  *ashō̆l / *ushûl / *aˀshâl [< *ashal-]    [< Val. akašān] : Kh. Mahal ?= Val. māχan-āz, Q Máhan
STAFF, ROD  —  n  —  #rukûn    [#R-K-N] : obviously assuming that Kh. #tha- (in Tharkûn) = Arabic dhû-
STAIR  —  n  —  *igdîb-a, (-ī̆-); *guddab-a, -ī̆-; *ê-/ma-gadb-V, -ī̆-    ['<' OS *dimba < *DIB-mā; *ê-/ya- < ˀAY(A)] : cp. aglâb = LAB-m- (#1), Arabic sullama(t-), Hebro-Aramaic feminine marker -âh (-at-) = *-ī̆- < Dîs; also note Ad. in Avradî)
STONECUTTER  —  n  —  *uflā̆k; *afalkâl    [< F-L-K]
STREAM, FLOW vs. BE WET, WATER(Y)  —  v (pa 3sg?)  —  *ăwál-; *sa-/si-ˀawwal-    [#ʔ-W-L] : from the probable root of ûl [also the verbal noun of this verb?] (from Valarin ullu, ulu "water"?), the attested model verb being fĕlak- — here /ĕ-/ > /ă-/ after an initial guttural (/ʔ/, the unmarked Khuzdul glottal stop) as in Semitic #2 mimics Arabic Stem 5 / Aramaic Ithpaʕʕal (*/sV-/ for Sem. /ta-/ ≠ f. -at..)
SUFFICE vs. BE ON THE RIGHT  —  root  —  #t-r-z / #t-r-n / #t-r-r    ['<' S. far(n) or forn] : via the consonantal "clues" in Kh. (*)turg = S. fang; Kh. baraz = S. born/caran — the final radical candidate /n/ appears in the attested intransitive base #S-L-N
THREAT, IMMINENCE  —  n  —  *ugh-ûb ~ *agz-âb    [*G-H/Z-B] : from CE *ubmē (id.) via an imitation of the juxtaposed Kh. aglâb, CE *labm-
THREE  —  num  —  *dalâsh/z (*dalêsh/z) / *shadâl (*shadêl)    [*D-L-SH/Z / *SH-D-L] : from the Eldarin numeral, based on the pairings S. paran ?= Kh. #shar(a)b (root #1) and S. celeb = Kh. kibil (root #2) the alt. vocalisation /1a2ê3/ is from The Dwarrow Scholar's neolinguistic scheme
TOPIC(S) vs. GOSSIP  —  n  —  *magalb    [#G-L-B]
TREE  —  n  —  *(kh)arz/(kh)urz (collective vs. sg. -a/-î- per Arabic šajar+a ?)    ['<' S. orn] : cp. Kh. baraz = S. born or caran; #Kh-Z-D ≈ OT-OS (Ad. hazid)
URBAN  —  adj  —  *uthûn-ul (*-û/-ub, #-ā̆g)    [< #uthûn (PE17:47)] : Arab. madan-iy (In Arabic & Hebrew, the nisba adj. suffix has the same vowel as the Common Semitic genitive case)
WRITER, CHRONICLER  —  n  —  *uzrā̆b    [Z-R-B]
WRITING/RECORDING-TOOL  —  n  —  *zerab (prop. *zérab?)    [Z-R-B]
YELLOW  —  adj  —  *d/tulukh (vs. *d/tukhul)    [*D/T-L-Kh] : from Valarin tulukh- (whence also Vanyarin Q tulka) — a colour/characteristic adjective of a /u/-vowel type is by definition found in Buzundush even if the first element in Tumunzahar were actually a noun



Quenya    ————

ADHERENCE  —  n  —  *himbië, *himya-lë (-më)    [KHIM]
ADULTHOOD  —  n  —  *alanwië, *alanwalë    
ADVENTURE  —  n  —  *mirraxë, *raxe(nna)-, raxim-mistë    [raxë "danger" (VT44:9); MI; MIS] : -im- = Dpl. -in phonetically assimilated
ALL/EVERY KIND OF  —  adj  —  *ilyaitë, *ilquaitë, *ilqu(a)ima    [IL] : compare taitë, sítë, manima
APPARENTLY  —  adv  —  *vëavë; *nemyavë    [#1 < adj. vëa (PE17:189)] : presumably, = impers. néma (i..) "it seems (that..)" (PE22:99)
ASTRAY: LOST  —  adj  —  *warin(wa), *wári-ssë-a, *wando-ssë-a    [WAD] : #2 contains a súrë-type noun; with #3 cp. MBAD (MR:350)
AUTHOR  —  n  —  *parmahto    [parma + ahto]
AWE-INSPIRING  —  adj  —  *áya-cuitëa, -nartaitë, -tyaraitë, -tyarya    [w/ -ya, -itë] : #1 relies on the attestedness of pahta- (verb) and ú-pahtëa (adj.)
BAG, CARRYING-AID  —  n  —  *colma    [< *kol-mā < KOL]
BARK, BAY  —  v  —  *(hu)hunga-; (~ at?) *huhta-    [KHUG] : by analogy with other -G roots (frequentative prefix : cp. PE22 pp. 108, 112+, etc.)
BEHAVE  —  v intr  —  *lëa- (pa.t. *lengë)    [LEÑ (cp. EÑ, TEÑ)]
BRING  —  v tr  —  tulya-; *tucin-ya-; *colin-ya-    [TUL; TUK; KOL] : tulya- encompassed the sense "bring" attestedly in earlier Quenya (PE16:133 & PE14:58) with #2 and #3 cp. Qe. turinya- (since no Q -ta- derivation from -in(a) is attested yet)
CHARTAE NUMMARIAE  —  n pl  —  *míre-/mirwa-hyalinci    [MIR; Qe. hyalin +dim. suff.]
CLARIFY  —  v tr  —  *calasta-    [KAL : calassë] : cp. PE17:84
COMBINE  —  v tr  —  *(o)yatya-    [WO; YAT (cp. LAT, MET..)]
COMMENCING, INCIPIENT  —  adj  —  *yestëa, *yestila, *yestassëa    [YES(ET)] : regarding -ila see PE22:155 (~ active participle *yestaila per PE22:156)
CONFIDENT  —  adj  —  *estel-arwa, -inqua, *þelítë    [STEL; 3AR; KWA]
CONTINUE, BE EXTENDED  —  v intr/refl  —  *tai(y)a-, *taina-, [in Acc. + inf.] *ataita    [TAY]
CULTURE  —  n  —  *ohaimelë    [WO; KHIM] : cp. tengwe-lë, lambe-lë, hande-lë
DEPICT, PORTRAY  —  v tr  —  *emya-, [habitually] *emba-    [EM]
DESTINATION, TARGET  —  n  —  *ten(dë), *tén(ë); *naivë, *nipsë (< *nib-dē)    [TEN; NIB] : cp. the one origin of Finnish kohde "target" (matkakohde "travel destination"), kohdata "to encounter, face", kohden/kohti "toward(s)", and with #2 the Q. stock of KWIN, YEN
DEVELOP  —  v tr  —  *etevatya-, [refl.] *-xe-    [ET; BAT (: MET)] : 'to make sth walk forward'
DURING  —  prep  —  ter [L per]; mi lúmë (+ Poss.); (Poss./Gen. +) *lúyandessë; (Nom. +) *lúyalassë    [LU (-ya- : NDU)] : ..ala-ssë = '(with) X being in passing, aliquo procedente' (as in Markirya)
ENTRANCE  —  n  —  *mir(a)-, minna-men(ë), -rat(ë), minna-tië    [MI; MEN; RAT; TEʒ] : attested examples of short root nouns include mar, ter-cen, tyel
EVIDENCE / PIECE OF ~  —  n  —  *ennie(n)-/enwie(n)-tulco    [adj. enna/enwa; TULUK]
EXAMINATION  —  n  —  *ecces-të, *ecceþ-esta/ë    [ET; KETH]
EXPECTATION  —  n  —  *(nó-, ana-)horárë    [SKOR]
FELLOWSHIP  —  n  —  *sartonë, *(y)osartië, *(o-, yo-)sartossë    [w/ sarto "loyal companion"] : with #3 cp. Qe. le-tinwe-ssë ("constellation") and karka-ssë ("set of spikes or teeth")
FEW, NOT MANY  —  adj  —  *mang(w)a, *mangima    [!MAÑG] : synonymous with aþanótë
FINDING, THING FOUND  —  n  —  *hairë, *hirda, *hir(in)wë; [discovery] *tauvë, *tuvinwë    [KHIR; TUB]
FIRST, AT FIRST  —  adv  —  *mino; *min(d)ë; *minya-vë, -lë¹ (as an essive); yesse-n    [MIN; YES(ET)] : with *mino cp. cato, oio [and the Finnish gen-acc. adverbs]; *min(d)ë is formed like the Qe. adv. ol(d)ë ¹ regarding -lë, see also entry & cp. PE17 pp. 59, 74, 95
FOCUS ON  —  v tr  —  *vorotenta-    [voro + tenta-]
FORCE, COERCION  —  n  —  *tuoþahtië    [TUG; THAG]
FUTURE, POSTERITY  —  n  —  *tulwië, *tulury(am)ë, (pl. tant.) tuluryar    [TUL] : with #1 cp. vanwië "past" (n), Ety:397
GENEROSITY  —  n  —  *ánulassë vs. *antulassë    [AN(A)]
GENEROUS  —  adj  —  *ánula vs. *antula    [AN(A)]
HALFWAY  —  n  —  *perelenda    [PER; LED]
HARDSHIP, TROUBLE  —  n  —  *urdalë, *urdas(së), *ur(nu)ma    [< adj. urda & its root GUR]
HEEL  —  n  —  *nótallunë, *ca(t)tallunë    [nó-; TAL; RUN; KA]
IMAGINATIVE  —  adj  —  *nauþ(ë)arwa, *nauþinqua    [NOW(O); ʒAR; KWA]
INCITE  —  v tr  —  *siuta-    [SIW (: PIW)]
INDIVIDUAL  —  n  —  *eryamo; *erquen    [ER]
INFINITY  —  n  —  *lametë, *latyelë    [LA; MET; KYEL] : compare the nouns lacarë, laista, etc.
INSIGHTFUL, PERCEPTIVE  —  adj  —  *tercenwa, *terceninqua    [TER; KEN (MR:216)]
INTEREST, FASCINATION  —  n  —  *lúrë, *lurmë, *lurus(së)    [DUR]
KNOCK (ON DOOR)  —  n  —  *ton-wë (-wië, -wen)    [TON] : cp. sanwë and PE17:68
LABOURER  —  n  —  *móta-ro, -ndo {m}, *móta-ri(l), -llë {f}    [MŌ : v. móta-]
LAUGHTER  —  n  —  *lalandë    [lala- (PM:359) + -ndë] : also cp. ulundë < ULU
LEARNER  —  n  —  *parindo, *parmo/paryo, *páro    [PAR]
LESS, IN SMALLER AMOUNT  —  adv  —  *ampícië    [PIK] : cp. PE17:93+
LIBRARY (COLLECTION)  —  n  —  *parmacombë    [PAR; KOM]
LOCAL  —  adj  —  *nómessëa; [of speaker's current location] *siménaina, *sissëa    [nómë "a place"; SI; MEN (Ety:372)] : with #2 cp. valaina
MANHOOD, MANLINESS  —  n  —  *nér(i)ë, *neressë    [NDER (cp. the stock of WEN, Ety:398)]
MAP  —  n  —  *(cant)emma nórion, hyalin mínalen/*mínā̆lëa    [KAT; EM; NDOR; MEN]
MEASURE: MEANS OF ~MENT  —  n  —  *leswa, *lemma (with CE *-mā)    [from root of lesta] : for phonoevolutionary parallels, see KHITH, SMAL in The Etymologies
MISLEAD, LEAD ASTRAY  —  v tr  —  *ustulya-    [based on PE17:151 & VT43(:22)]
MOVER, 'MOTOR'  —  n  —  *rihtar/rincar (*vor(o)~)    [RIK(H)]
MULTIPLY  —  v tr  —  *itya- vs. *inta- ('by': +Instr.)    [IT (: LAT, TAT, etc.)]
NECESSARY  —  adj  —  [Dsg. >] *mauri-n-ya/-da; *anamaurë, *maurévëa    [MBAW; ANA/NĀ; -vëa] : with #1, cp. súri-(nen) and the possessives men-ya, Qe. tyen-da; #2 is an adjective formation like ('MQ') avanótë and Qe. lintitinwë
NIGHTMARE  —  n  —  *olo-/ló-ruh-to (-të); *lungorto    [DŌ (VT45:28); RUK]; [LUG; Q ñorto]
NOTICEABLE  —  adj  —  *hentent-aima, -álima    [< hententa-]
OBSTACLE, COMPLICATION  —  n  —  *hrangwa, *hranguma    [SRAG/SRAK] : cp. sangwa, sanguma
OPTION  —  n  —  *cílimárë    [cílima "choosable, selectable" + -(á)rë]
PICKED THING; EXCERPT  —  n  —  (hó-) *lepsa/lemna    [LEP (*-dā, *-nā)] : cp. apsa, etc.
PLANET  —  n  —  *elempelya/o, *ele(n)himya/o    [EL; PEL; KHIM] : cp. melu-matya (PE17:68), tolyo
POPULAR  —  adj  —  *linseron-da, -wa, *limmeld(ë)arwa    [LI; SER; MEL] : after Icelandic vin-sæll (id.)
PORTABLE  —  adj  —  *cólima, *colostëa    [KOL]
PRE-  —  pref  —  *yare-/yála-/ai(a)- [: Finn. esi-]; *afa-/fai-; né-    [YA; (A)PHĀ; *(E)NĒ]
PROBABLE, LIKELY  —  adj  —  *hor-aima, -álima, *horárëa    [SKOR] : see also attested synonym(s)
PROVIDE  —  n  —  *(h)ráferya-    [(h)rá- + ferya-] : "to arrange sth ready on behalf of another"
QUALITY  —  n  —  *manimárë; *vëalë    [< manima, #vëa] : with #1, cp. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/quality#Etymology
QUESTION  —  n  —  *maquen-wië/-wen(d-), *maquetesta/ë    [MA; KWET]
RADIATE  —  v freq (intr)  —  *fafaina-, *fafáya-    [PHAY]
RAFT  —  n  —  *lutyo, *lutil, *lut(u)talan    [LUT; talan] : with #3 cp. Qe. sara-mór "writing-ink" (PE16:133) given -nwa, voronwa, alanwa (PE22:112), a form *lutunwa might also make sense (though be possibly preferred as an animal-name)
REALITY, EXISTENCE  —  n  —  *anw-assë, *nanw-assë, -ië    [< adj. anwa, nanwa]
REASON, CAUSE(R)  —  n  —  *tyár-(o), -il, *tyaryo    [KYAR] : we might also anticipate a synonymous derivation *atyar (see Ardalambion > Primitive Elvish > THE STEM AND ITS MODIFICATIONS), even though such a noun would look identical to the Npl. of atya "zweite"
REGIME, GOVERNMENT  —  n  —  *inga-cánor/-cundor [pl.], *herya/ë (= cunya/ë), *herunë (= *cundorë)    [ING; KAN; KUN(D); KHER]
RELATIVE  —  n  —  *onossemo, *nosse-n(d)er {m.}, -n(d)is {f.}, *nossequen {c.}    [NŌ; NDER/NDIS; KWE-N] : cp. Gn. gonothrin "of same kindred"
ROPE  —  n  —  *nutil, *nútel(a), *nutsë    [NUT] : implement used in the action (of tying); cp. here, Ety:389 & Ety:389-390 another synonym would be the early attestation þerm-a "cord", or its augmentation with -on(d-)
SCROLL  —  n  —  *pantila    [PAT] : cp. panta- (unfurl, spread out), tanta-, tantila
SECRET  —  n  —  *muin-ë, -ië, *muinat    [MUY; NĀ]
SELL  —  v tr  —  *aumanca-    [AWA; MBAKH]
SEXUAL  —  adj  —  *puhtëa, *puhtā̆lëa    [!PUK/PUK(H)] : an attested noun > adj. formation similar to #1 is úpahtëa
SHOULDER  —  n  —  *rancinga; *ocolquin(d-)    [ranco + inga; WO; KOL; KWIN] : with #1 cp. aldinga "topmost part of a tree"; *ocolquin(d-) = "co-bearing-crest (ridge, prominence)"
SINCE, EVER SINCE  —  (temp) conj  —  *tallo yá, *lúmello yá    [TA; LU; YA]
SMALL: MAKE ~ER  —  v tr  —  *(am)mintita-, *(am)nincita-    [< mintë, ninki- "small"] : cp. #airita-, an-torya-më
SMILE  —  n  —  *rëo, *rai(na)stir    [RAY-2; STIR]
SOFTEN, MAKE SOFTER  —  v tr  —  *(am)mussita-    [< mussë "soft" (VT39:17)]
SOMETIMES  —  adv  —  lú(me)li-ssen    [LŪ]
SONG, LAY (SUNG POEM)  —  n  —  *lainë    [LIN-2] = the "summer-lookalike" lairë, Etym:359
SOWING, (Aus)saat  —  n  —  *renda    [RED (: SYAD)]
SPEND  —  v tr  —  *hó-yuc-    [HO; YUK]
SPEND THE NIGHT  —  v  —  *lómesta-    [per Qe. koiresta- "spend one's life", PE12:48] : cp. Finn. yöpyä (id.)
THANKS TO  —  prep  —  *hanna vs. -o vié-nen/*cardo-nen    [HAN (: TEN > tenna); WEG; KAR (: NDER)]
THAT, daß (pre-article)  —  conj  —  *sal    [= sa (MS)] : a morphological harmonization/alignment of the conjunctions mal and sa — cp. Finnish mu-ttae-ttä
THOUSAND  —  num  —  *menquë    [= S #meneg] : the Q equivalent might also be *mencë, yet nonetheless S eneg = Q enquë
TOMATO  —  n  —  *musserunuma, *mussecarnuma/muxarnuma    [*M(B)US + RUN, KARAN]
TOMORROW'S  —  adj  —  *enárëa    [enar "tomorrow" (PE22:124)]
TOUGHNESS  —  n  —  *tarya-lë, -ssë    [TÁRAG]
TRADITION  —  n  —  *atahaimë / *atóhaimë    [AT(-AT); WO; KHIM]
TRANSPARENT  —  adj  —  *tercénima    [TER(E); KEN] : a synonym to attested (early 1900's) Qe. liquistëa (PE12:54)
TYRANT, OPPRESSOR  —  n  —  *mauya-mo, -ro    [MBAW]
UNGRATEFUL  —  adj  —  *hante-/hanwa(II)-lóra, *úhanaitë, *hallissenca, *necendalissë(a)    [HAN; han-; (G)LIS; NEK-2; ?NDA(-N)]
VALUE, WORTH  —  n  —  *mirma; *(o)mirwië    [MIR; WO] : #1 = 'a means to esteem with'
VICTIM  —  n  —  *harino, *naityano, *hyanino    [SKAR; Qe. naitya-, hyan-] : cp. farino "hunted one, fugitive"
WARM: BECOME WARMER  —  v intr  —  *lauya-    [LAW] : cf. TIW
WARMTH  —  n  —  *lauc-ië, -alë; [sunlight] *anarmë    [#1 lauca + -ië] : a shorter form *laucë may also be acceptable in light of PE17:115
WAYFARING, Wanderung  —  n  —  *ran-wë (-wië), *ranastë    [RAN] = ránë; cp. sanwë and PE17:68
WEAPON  —  n  —  *ohtamma    [ohta + tamma]
WEIGH  —  v intr  —  *lunga-    [LUG (: YAG)] : cp. also verbs from the roots GLING, PEÑ, STAG
WHEN  —  interr  —  *má(qua); *mā̆lume(s)    [MA; LU] : with #1 cp. í, íqa, yá, tá, sí (Eldamo)
WHY  —  interr  —  *manan (= Dat.); *epema    [MA; EP(E) (cp. epe-ta, -tai)]
WINDOW  —  n  —  *coahen(d-)    [coa + hen]
WOMB; WORKSHOP  —  n  —  *ahta    [< *aktā < (*A-)KAT] : per the etymology and meaning / root sense relationship of nouns like anca, osto (qq.v. Ardalambion > Primitive Elvish)
WRITER  —  n  —  *téco, *tecindo {m}, *tecissë {f}    [TEK]



Sindarin    ————

ADULT PERSON  —  n  —  (pp. galan-/gallen >) *gel(l)endir {m}, *gel(l)endis {f}    [GAL(A); NDER; NDIS] : cp. meldir, meldis; Q alanwa ("adult", PE22:112) || element-boundary result per Gateway § 15.16.
AGE OF A CREATURE  —  n  —  *íphannas, *íphathred    [< íphant] : cp. thennas, pathred
APPRECIATION  —  n  —  *mern-ad, -as; *mirith    [to adj. *mern < MIR (ao. cp. SKAR)]
ARACHNOID, SPIDERLIKE  —  adj  —  *ungollen    [< ungol]
ARCHER  —  n  —  *pengron {m}, *pengril {f}    [KWIG]
ASK, INQUIRE  —  v  —  *mabed- (-ia-, *mabethra-)    [MA, KWET : Q maquet- (PM:403)]
AVENGER  —  n  —  *acharon, *agnir    [OS *at-kʰaro(ndo); *akandīr(o) < AK, NDER : Salo §§ 4.79., 14.9.]
BACK: GIVE OR BRING BACK  —  v tr/caus  —  *radhwa-    [RAD per PE22:148]
BECAUSE OF  —  prep  —  (1) o thuith; (2) sui chilt/'wanýl; (3) ndi/trî bres/bessad (+Gen.)    [*tuith = the action of tog- (TUK); *hilt (OS *kʰil-tʰe, -tʰo), *gwa-n(d)ýl (NDEW) "consequence"; *pres(s) "affection" (PERES)]
BEGINNING  —  n  —  *mimbad    [min- + pâd (PE17:34)] : "first step or action" (cp. the OIr. compound synonym cét-óir )
BEHAVIOUR, MANNERISM  —  n  —  *leng-er (-or), *leng(ren)as, *lemi (< *leŋwiie = Ety:376)    [LEÑ]
BORN: BE BORN  —  v intr  —  *enia- {pa.t. enias(t)}    [ON(O)] : cf. OR(O)
BRIEFLY, IN BRIEF  —  adv  —  *na thent; *an luveg    [#2: an + dim. of ]
BURNING, ON FIRE  —  adj  —  *naureb    [naur + -eb]
CALM (ANOTHER), PACIFY  —  v tr/caus  —  *sedhwa-    [SED per PE22:148]
CAUSE, BRING ABOUT  —  v tr  —  *ceiria-    [KYAR (: TYAL)]
CAUSE TO DESIRE, HAVE FEEL LIKE -ING  —  v tr/caus  —  *edhwa-    [ID per PE22:148]
CENTRAL, ESSENTIAL  —  adj  —  *(e)nedhren    [(É)NED]
CHANGE, ALTERATION  —  n  —  *gwist, -ad(eg), -adel    [WIS #2 (PE17)] : cp. gwest, mist, nelladel
CHOOSER, ELECTOR  —  n  —  *cillon [OS *kilro(ndo) or *kildo(ndo)], *cilion {m}; *cilieth {f}    [KIL]
CHOSEN  —  pp  —  *cillen    [KIL]
CITY  —  n  —  *ostas/daeros(t); *beredi, -on/-oth    [OS *ostasse/dairosto < Ó-SOT; *baratiie < BAR-AT]
CLIMBER  —  n  —  *red-lon, -ron, *rethron [OS *rentʰro(ndo) or *retʰro(ndo)], (habitual) *redweg    [RET (cp. ET, KHAT vs. KWET)]
COMING, ADVENT  —  n  —  *tuluth, *tult (OS *tul-tʰe, -tʰu), *toled, *telian¹ (*tylin²)    [TUL] : ¹ cp. ortheli-an for a Root Verb from TEL ² < OS *tulīne
COOKED  —  adj/pp  —  *afnen    [OS *amnina < *apnā < AP (: TAP)]
CROP  —  n  —  *iaust    [< CE *jab(a)stā : Qe. yausta]
DEPICT  —  v tr  —  *(oh)emma-    [EM; OS]
DEVOTION  —  n  —  *ndilith    [NDIL]
DIVIDE, PART  —  v tr  —  *(ui)neg-/nenga(da)-; *peria-    [YŪ; NEK #2; PER (sec. Q vb & PHER)]
DROP, MAKE FALL  —  v tr  —  *danhada- (nh, nth, nn)    [DAT]
DRUNKARD  —  n  —  *ylweg    [YUL]
DWARVEN  —  adj  —  *nogren; *hadhodren; *cadhadren    [< naug, hadhod, cadhad]
EATER  —  n  —  *madron, *mador, *(†)math (cpd. -vath)    [MAT (: KHAT; RET)]
EDIBLE  —  adj  —  *madui    [MAT] : the logical antonym of *úvadui "inedible" (per PE17:144)
ELSE, OTHER  —  adj/pn  —  *esc, *eg(e)n    [#ES-EK/EK-ES (in Q exa)] : cp. Ety:373, PE17:55, 184
EMPTY  —  v tr  —  *cofra-, *cofnada-    [KUM]
ENTISH  —  adj  —  *onodren    [< onod]
EXILE(DNESS)  —  n  —  *edlenneth    [< edlen(n-)]
EXPLAIN, MAKE UNDERSTOOD  —  v  —  *hannada-    [KHAN (: TAK)]
EXTEND, PROLONG  —  v tr  —  *taeda-, *taena(da)-    [TAY] : attested -AY+t- verb derivations in S : gwaeda-, raeda-
FEMALE  —  adj  —  *ndaich    [OS *ndihia < NDIS]
FITTING, BEFITTING  —  adj  —  *cevid, *cafn, *coven    [KAM (#3 per PE17:133)]
FRUIT  —  n  —  *(ed)iafn ('fructus'), *iaudh (*jab-d-), *ieved-ig, -il, *peich-io(dh)    [YAB; PIS] : cp. Gateway (pp. 159-160); Gn. gav- "to produce, yield, bear fruit" (< YAVA)
FUNDAMENTAL  —  adj  —  *thonnathren    [< thonnas]
FUTURE  —  n  —  *tylwi vs. *telwi    [OS *tulwiie < TUL] : cp. (the pl. noun) cyry < *kurwi vs. (the N inf) tegi < *tukiie
GIVER, BESTOWER  —  n  —  *adhron, *anhor (nh/nth/nn; OS *antʰro) {m} (= {f} *adhril, #oneth)    [AN(A) (: ONO)]
GO, FARE  —  v  —  #gledh-, #glenna-    [(G)LED] : a later synonym is men- (inf. mened, PE22:165)
GRAVE, TOMB (syn.)  —  n  —  *ui(r)had; *ui(r)chost; *uist (OS *uista/uiste)    [OY; SAT; KHAW]
GUIDE  —  v  —  *go-, tre-dog-    [TUK]
HABITUAL, CUSTOMARY  —  adj  —  *haew-eb, -en    [w/ haew]
HOW, IN WHAT WAY  —  interr  —  *mân    [< CE *manen] : cp. e.g. glân, thôr (< OS *tʰoron; Ety:353 sim.)
ILLUMINATE  —  v tr  —  *cele(i)dia-    [OS *kalatia- < KAL-AT] : cp. egleria-
IN EXCHANGE FOR  —  sui *ndanan(t)/*adant/*ndambyl  an/en-    [NDAN; AT #2; AN (in Q anna); BEW (see FAVOUR above)]
INSPIRE  —  v tr  —  *nethan- {netheni-n}, *ne-thanna/-thenia-, *ne(n)-nartha-    ['kindle inside/into'; w/ THAN (MR:388, PE17:82)]
INTERESTING  —  adj  —  *nauth-adol, -adedui    [NOW(O); GAT] : 'thought-seizing'
INVISIBLE  —  adj  —  *pen-gen(ed) (cf. PE17:145), *ugenn(en), *udírad    [PEN; UGU; KEN; TIR] : with #3 cp. uluithiad ; also note *archened by D.S.
JOIN, CONNECT  —  v  —  *go-iad-, *iathra-    [YAT]
JUDGE  —  v  —  *badh(a)-, *bedhia-    [BAD]
KEEPER  —  n  —  *hebron    [KHEP]
KEY  —  n  —  *padol, *panu (< *panw- < *patmā = Etym:400)    [PAT]
KNEE  —  n  —  *ochod / *obod (or *echuig etc. < dual á la Ety:368)    [Gn. octha (Qe. okka) < OQO-¹] : cf. Gn. leptha = S lebed ¹ here updated as *OKH, *OK-W, also to contrast 1950's OK(O)
LACK, ABSENCE  —  n  —  *peneth    [PEN]
LADYLIKE  —  adj  —  *hirillen; *rodellen    [< hiril, rodel]
LATE: OF LATE HOUR  —  adj  —  *thinnadren (nn, nh, nth)    [THIN]
LAUGH: MAKE SB LAUGH  —  v tr  —  *gladhwa-    [G-LAD (PM:359) per PE22:148]
LEADERSHIP, CHARGE  —  n  —  *conoth, *connas (OS *kondasse)    [KON to lead (PE17:113)]
LEGENDARIUM  —  n  —  *nerni    [OS *narniie < NYAR (: SAR)]
LENGTH  —  n  —  *annas, *andred    [AN-AD] : cf. thinnas, pathred
LIGHT OF WEIGHT  —  adj  —  *athchal, *athal    [ath- + KHAL] : #2 per Gateway §§ 15.17., 15.21.
LINK, JOIN  —  v tr  —  *lefra-, *limma- (pp *limmen)    [LIM]
LIQUID, FLUID  —  adj  —  *síreb    [SIR (: PHIR)]
LOOK FOR, SEEK  —  v tr  —  *abthor- (abtheri-n)    [(A)PA; THUR #2¹] : ¹ whence Q minaþurië "enquiry", þurië "Suchen"
LOOKOUT, Beobachtung  —  n  —  *palan-, hae-diri(a)n, -dirith    [PAL; KHAY(A); TIR]
LUNAR  —  adj  —  *Ithillen    [< Ithil]
MAGNIFY  —  v tr  —  *mbeleitha-    [(M)BEL-EK] : cp. Gn. belectha-
MARKET  —  n  —  *mbachras    [OS *mba(ñ)kʰrasse < MBAKH] : a sound-historically parallel attestation is nadhras "pasture"
MEAL, EATING  —  n  —  *medien, *mad(o)r, -el/-eg, *mant    [OS *matien-; *matre; *man-tʰa, -tʰe < MAT]
MEMORY (THE FACULTY)  —  n  —  (ad-, go-) *ren-u, -or, *renes(t)    [REN (*-wa, *-re, *-e-sta)]
MISERABLE  —  adj  —  *naeth-eb, -ob    [< naeth] : Gn. naithol (LT1:250)
MONTHLY  —  adj  —  *(il)raunui    [IL; RAN]
MOTHERLY  —  adj  —  *emellen; *nanethren    [< emel, naneth]
MOTHER TONGUE  —  n  —  *mbarphaeth    [MBAR; paeth "speech" (PE17:126)]
NIGHTLY, NOCTURNAL  —  adj  —  *fuin-en, -ui    [PHUY]
NOUN, Hauptwort  —  n  —  *esbeth    [ES; KWET] : after Finn. nimi-sana an attested -(S)S+P- result is lass-pelin > lasbelin
NURSERY GARDEN / SEEDLING-JAR / TOP SOIL  —  n  —  *tuist    [TUY (: RUY)]
OBTAIN; COME UPON  —  v tr  —  *tov(a)-, *tofra-    [TUB #2 (in Q tuv-, same form as 1917's Qe. tuvu-, Gn. tû- "take, receive, get")]
OLD AGE  —  n  —  *iaured/ióred    [YA-R]
OWN, PRIVATE  —  adj  —  *gwîr (II)    [OS *wīra < (E)WE (PM:340)]
PAST, Vergangenheit  —  n  —  *gwenwi    [OS *wanwiie < WAN (cp. Arda Philology #1 p. 91)]
PATIENT, Genesender  —  n  —  *hathal    [HATH] : cp. nathal "guest" from NATH
PAUSE, BREATHER  —  n  —  *sest, *sedheth-eg    [#1 < OS *sesta < SED+tā (cp. SYAD)]
PLAN  —  n  —  *nirias    [NIR] : 'a string of intentions'
PORTABLE  —  adj  —  *athgol    [ATHA; KOL]
PRINCELY  —  adj  —  *ernillen    [< ernil]
PROTECTOR  —  n  —  *caur; *sodron (*sothron)    [OS *kauro < KAW; *sotro(ndo), *sotʰro(ndo) < SOT]
REASON, CAUSE  —  n  —  *horon, *ochor, *min-chor; *cara-dol(f)¹    [OS *kʰoro(ndo); *O-KHOR (WJ:414 sim.); KYAR (: SYAD, TYAL); OS *tulma "event" (= Q, PE22:124)] : ¹ qq.v. Gateway § 15.32.
REMAINDER  —  n  —  thar-lefn (pl. ˜ath), *-levor (OS *lem-re, -ro); *eno-chern (OS *-kʰirna); *(a)darth, *tre-dharth    [THAR; LEB/LEM; KHIR; AT(AT); DAR]
REMIND  —  v tr  —  *(ad)renna- (nn, nh, nth) vs. *redhra-, ('~ of [+Len.] unto sb [+prep.]') *rennada-    [REN (PM:372)]
REPORT  —  n  —  *gweth-ed, -ian    [(G)WETH (PM:395)]
REQUEST  —  v  —  *meg(a)-, *meitha-    [#MEK (in Q mecin "please / *I beg"] : with #2 cp. REK, TEK
SAME: IN THE ~ WAY  —  adv  —  *iviol [< *imiǭl- < *imjāl- : ER]; *na 'ochaewen [OS adj. *wokʰaimina]    [IM; WO; KHIM]
SAVIOUR  —  n  —  *edregnir, *edreithor [OS *etrektʰ(e)-ro] vs. *edreithron [OS *etrektʰe-ro(ndo)]    [ET; REK] : with #2 cp. maethor, a K-final-root derivation from a later period than Early Noldorin eithron (PE13:143, 158)
SCRIPTURE  —  n  —  *teithian [OS *tektʰian-]; *tenc [OS *teŋkʰa]    [TEK]
SECURE, SAFE  —  adj  —  *údalt, *althalt; *pedh-raes, -rach(ad)    [#1, #2 = neg. of talt "slipping, insecure" (Ety:390)]
SEER  —  n  —  *cendir, *cedhron {m}, *cineth, *cedhril {f}    [KEN]
SERVICE  —  n  —  *bŷl, *bewed, *buiad (-el)    [#1 < OS *beule < BEW (: DEW)]
SHARPEN  —  v tr  —  *(m)aegra-; *(m)aegada-    [OS *(m)aikra- (cp. KWAT), *(m)aikata- < MIK / ÁYAK]
SHELTER, PROTECTION  —  n  —  *cau(v-), *caust    [OS *kauma, *kausta < KAW (PE17:108)]
SHOVEL  —  n  —  *sam(p) [CE *sapmā], *saeth [OS *sapto/tʰo : RIS], *sabol/sebil [OS *sap-la/-ilė]    [#SAP (in Norn-habar)]
SHOW, CAUSE TO BE SEEN  —  v tr  —  *cennada-    [OS *kennata- < KEN]
SIMILAR  —  adj  —  *gothiol, *gothiadui    [WŌ; THĒ]
SIZE ('LARGENESS')  —  n  —  *daered    [DAY (cp. PE17:25, 147)]
SLAYING  —  n  —  *ndaeth    [< OS *ndak-tʰa, -tʰe < NDAK (cp. NAK, NOWO)] : alternatively *daeth from a root variant DAK in light of PE17:131
SMILE  —  n  —  *rae, *raethir, *gelthir    [OS *raio < RAY(A); STIR (formerly THĒ); GYEL]
SNOW: IT SNOWS  —  v impers  —  *gluich vs. *rhaich    [OS *glohia (G-LOS); *r̭ihia (SRIS)]
SOWER  —  n  —  *redhron    [RED (: BAD)]
SOWING  —  n  —  *redhi(a)n    [RED]
SPACIOUS  —  adj  —  *sad-war, -wor    [SAT (: KAT)]
SPEAKER  —  n  —  *paethron, *carphad(r)on {m}, *paethril, *carphades {f}    [PAKAT; KARAP]
SPIRITUAL  —  adj  —  *faeren    [PHAY]
STAY, LINGERING  —  n  —  *darath, *darthad    [#1 < OS *darattʰe < DAR]
STILL, ADHUC  —  adv  —  *sui/be vrûn
SUNG (TYPICALLY)  —  adj  —  *glern/adlern    [OS *(at-, ata-)glirna < G-LIR]
SUPPORT, AVAIL  —  v  —  *godolcha-    [TUL-UK] : cp. the stock of ER-EK, NAR-AK + the name Tolchas (VT46:20)
SWALLOW  —  v tr  —  *lhog(a)- (pres 3 sg. *lhôg)    [SLUK] : assumed a "Mixed Class" verb (with Regular Preterite) like N gar(a)-, lhod(a)- (Ety:370, VT45:29)
SWEET  —  adj  —  *glissen    [(G)LIS (: GLOS)]
SWEETEN; ENGRACE  —  v  —  *glista-    [(G)LIS]
THAT, daß  —  conj  —  *ian (subordinate word → contraction of /aː/); *(e)di; *ial / il [*-l(l)ō]    [#1 < CE *ja-nen, -nă (Inst, Dat)] : #2 < the possible reading of di ai as Conj. + Impersonal Subject; cp. #3 with Q mal (Finnish mutta / että) and Sanskrit
THERE IS, ONE FINDS  —  v impers  —  *hair (II); (pen) hîr; *naif    [#1 < OS *khiria < KHIR; #3 < OS *nebia/nibia] : per Ety. pp. 372, 396 || also note a possible distinct pl. impers. pattern *(a)en hirir, *î(r) hirir (cf. VT50 / message)
THINKER  —  n  —  *sandir, *sadhron {m}, *soneth, *sadhril {f}    [SAN (cf. RAN, ONO)]
TORTURE, TORMENT  —  v tr  —  *mbalcha-, *mbaulanna-    [ÑGWAL]
TRANSLATE, BRING ACROSS  —  v tr  —  *thardog-    [OS *tʰaratuki- < THAR (#1) + TUK]
TROLL: OF ~(S)  —  adj  —  *torogren    [< torog]
TRY ON, ATTEMPT TO FIT  —  v tr  —  *cafnada-    [KAM]
VALARIN  —  adj  —  *Baladhren    [< Balan]
VALUABLE, WORTHY  —  adj  —  *meru    [MIR (in Q mirwa)]
VILLAGE-  —  adj  —  *gobellen    [< gobel]
WARM, CAUSE TO WARM UP  —  v tr  —  *laugra-; *laugada-    [LAW (Etym:368)]
WARMTH  —  n  —  *laug-as, -ed    [< laug < LAW (Etym:368)]
WEAPON, 'ARM'  —  n  —  *esgar, *escar    [SKAR] : sth. by which wounding happens, cp. SKAL #1, estel — vs. a descent from EK + SKAR
WEEK  —  n  —  *od(o)gor [OS *ot(o)kaure]    [OT-OK; AR/UR] : cp. Etym. pp. 368-9
WEIGHT, HEAVINESS  —  n  —  *lungred    [LUG]
WELCOME, RECEIVABLE  —  adj  —  *nath [< *nattʰa < *nathnā : PATH], *nathlan, *(ath-/mae-)nathui    [NATH]
WHEN, AS  —  conj  —  *toe(b) vs. *taw/tó î(w)    [OS *tǭ-i(a), -ī̆pa < CE *tā jā, tā ī(kʷā) (Q í, íqua "when"); (#2) CE *ta(a)-se ī-se (Q írë, ?ier)] : cp. Q , & tárë
WHISPER  —  v tr  —  *lhosta-    [SLUS] : cp. DUS > dosta- (and other S-final roots)
WITH-NAME, FAMOUS  —  adj  —  *eneth-(i)on, -wor    [< eneth "a name"]
WRITER  —  n  —  *tegnir, *teithor [OS *tektʰ(e)ro] {m}; *tegnis, *teithien [OS *tektʰiene] {f}    [TEK; NDER; NDIS] : with #2 cp. maethor of parallel phonetic background



Westron    ————

ALDERMAN  —  n  —  #(r)unag    [< Thorunahim] : a defensible extraction if Westron also sports an element #tho(r)- = Gnomish bo- ('son of, Mac-')
DARLING, SWEETHEART  —  n  —  *izr-a, ?izz-a, -e¹    [< Ad. izrê] : cf. W emma from Ad. ammê ¹ Ad. Subjective Form descendant, per the etymology of Cat. fe (< FĒNU)
DEEP  —  adj  —  *zalc ~ *nulc    [< Gn. dolc (< *nd-)] : cp. balc (Gn: PE11:21; W: PM:320) and Ad. ZAY'N, ZA, NAR (= ND- roots in Eld.) also guessable is the pp. *phur(n)in "dolven" [< PHUR]
DWELLING  —  n  —  *duku(p)    [< #DUK-] : 'sth which one inhabits' (cp. W phuru-, galap)
EAR  —  n  —  *huz-a-n, -r [z / r]    [< Ad. huzôn (Subj.)] : cp. Orel, "Handbook" pp. 30, 164, 181, 359; -a(n)/-ar < *-ōn : De B. Moll, "Catalana" (1952) § 19
EASTERN  —  adj  —  *azûli    [< ZUL] : the obvious counterpart of W adûni (PM:316) = OSax. westrōni — cp. the names and nouns in PM:51 with an intervocalic /z/ & common Ibero-Romance azul < Ar. lāzuward-
ELF  —  n  —  *nem(b)ra / *nembar    [< Ad. nimran (Subj.)] : per the most probable origin of W orka "Orc" (PE17:47), given its a-affected root vowel (cp. Ad. uruk, Subj. urkan); #2 = Orel, "Handbook" p. 404
ENCLOSURE, YARD  —  n  —  *bâm(a) / *zaphad-    [< Q panda / PAD] : see HAIR /b-/ : BAN (Eld. PER); zV+ < ZI-MIR [whereas zadan may be = Qe. san or a 'karab/lobor' type of metathetic derivation from Gn. ind(os) / "y-n-d" ]
EVERY, EACH  —  adj  —  *kat(t-), *kâth-a    [< Ad. kâtha] : #1 = Words of Westernesse p. 99
GOLDEN, OF GOLD  —  adj  —  *pharza-n, -l [*pharz- vs. *pharr-¹]    [< Ad. pharazôn] : Old West Germanic -a < PGerm. *-ō(n) — postvocalic, word-final Ad. /-n/ either possibly survived in W similar to the stems of adjectives in Catalan (in W razan ?), or (in the case of Ad. /-ôn/) it actually became the adj. suffix -(a)l / dialectal -(a)r [similitude in OSp.] ¹ compare Orel, "Handbook" pp. 38, 94
GRIND vs. BE GROUND  —  v (refl?)  —  *p(h)olg-    [< Early Eld. MULU] : á la W. bolg- "to swell" = BULU/PULU
GUARDED  —  adj/pp  —  *tudnin (*tunnin)    [< TUD] : the passive participial counterpart of active *tudald(a) / *tûda in light of Karnin-gul "Rivendell"
HAIR (SINGLE)  —  n  —  *sîm(-a),     [< Qe. & Q findë] : based on the equations sakal = Q falassë (UT), m-(ak) = Q mund-(a) (Ety:372)
HEAVY  —  adj  —  *brutti (*bruddi)    [< Ad. burud-] : also cp. KAR'S, Words of Westernesse p. 105
LENGTHY, EXTENSIVE  —  adj  —  *nîr(-a), *nêr(-a)    [Eld. TAY] : csd. Ad. nakh- = TUL, W. zîr- = SAY(-rā) and PGerm. *-aira-z > OSax., OHG -ēr (Orel p. 153) one may also expect a descendant of an Ad. pp. stem *(a)nazzad- [zz/ww &c.] (Q. taita-(i)na, -nwa, taina)
MOUNTAIN  —  n  —  *ruttu    [< dialectal stem of Ad. urud] : cf. W ruccu "a bear" < urug-
NIGHT  —  n  —  *hloim / *hlôm(-a) [ô pro uo]    [< Ad. lômi-n (Subj.) vs. *lômê] : cf. W uir < Ad. ûri-; W emma from Ad. ammê and Cat. -um < -ūmen (De B. Moll, "Catalana" [1952] §§ 106, 436)
OTHER, ANOTHER  —  adj  —  *t(h)az-i, -a(n)    [<< KES, KHY-] : csd. thar(a)n (= KAN-AT), Ad. thâni (: Q kén-, Qe. kē̆mi), tapuc (<< KAP?), W & Ad. /z/ (= Eld. /s/, /j/ : A-YAR)
OUR, OUR OWN  —  poss pn  —  *-na, *nâw(a), *nêva    [< Ad. #nê(n), *nê-vô, -v-ôn] : per the sound-history of Old West Germanic; cf. the attested forms -ha and keva in TT17
PULL, DRAW  —  v tr  —  *kur- / *hur-    [< Eld. SAK] : via sound-switchings imitating the equation PHUR (?< *(u)pʰuz-¹) = Eld. SAP Ad notam: /k/ and /p/ are phonetical "siblings", both being voiceless stop consonants ¹ vs. *phuk(h)ur-
SNOUT  —  n  —  #mûm(a)    [< mûmak] : cp. (1940's) Q mundo, -munda
STRAIGHT, DIRECT  —  adj  —  *zind(a), *zint    [< Ad. izindi]
SWORD  —  n  —  *zâr vs. *zag(ar)    [< Ad. zagar] : cf. W zîr- < zigir- (Words of Westernesse p. 119); however, intervocalic /g/ before /a/ may well survive, as in Catalan & related (llaga, roga-) — indef. Nsg. *zag (with stem *zagr-) per PGerm. *dagaz > OSax. dag ?
WIFE, SPOUSE  —  n  —  *ban(an)th-a, -e    [< Ad. banâth] : a parallel evolutionary form is aranth-a, -e ("queen", TT17:37)
WING, PINION  —  n  —  *lem(ma,mi), *lum(ma,mi), *lâph-    [< Gn. ram and CE *rāmā] : per Gn. mam = W emma (MORÓK = Ad. _urug); Gn. nal = W #gul; Eld. RÁY-AK = Ad. #LAW'KH; etc.



Black Speech (Orcish)    ————

ABILITY, POWER  —  n  —  oghor [vs. *(g)ag(C)ur, *(g)ank-ur¹ etc.]    : semantic assignment to an attested form, given its similarity with Gn. ogor of same meaning ¹ stem vowel /a/ forms would also be associatable with EK(E) [since ash = the Valarin equivalent of ERE]
AFFIRM, AVAIL, PROP  —  v  —  *dal-g/k(hr)-, *(uth-, da-, thra-)lank-    [< TUL-UK] : psb. loss of other syllable per urush, rushur > ghâsh
APPOINTED, ?PARTICULAR  —  adj  —  *thrâr-, *sh(r)âr-    [< Val. athāra (WJ:398)] : with loss of first vowel as in nazg < anašk(ād)
CONSIDER, PONDER  —  v  —  *(g)amb- / *(g)umb-    [< UB-2]
DAYTIME, DAY  —  n  —  *(g)ágh-Vz, -ai, *(g)ághosh (*g-, *s(k)-¹)    [< Q arië, arya] : ¹ csd. skai (: Q sië?) and Ad. satta = Q atta
DO, MAKE  —  v  —  *g(r)ur(b)-; *unk(r)-; *unkâgh-; *ugr-    [< KAR] : syn. *(g)ursh- < Gn. urtha- (work, wreak, fashion, make, devise) 
ENT  —  n  —  *uzut ~ *(g)uzt    [< ON-OT] : note Gn. ûl ≈ BSp. gûl late-position Stop Cns. /t/ kept unchanged, per -at (inf), tark, uruk
EVERYONE  —  pn  —  *ashûk / *ûkash; *kûk    [< ash, #, #ûk]
FIRST  —  adj  —  *bôz, *bûz (-osh)    [< MIN (Q minya)]
FLOAT, GO BY RAFT  —  v  —  *hant-    [< LUT & rel.] : a longer stem variant would imaginably show a marker of frequentativeness or intransitivity (with latter cp. Westron #-g-, Finn. -u- )
FROM vs. OF  —  prep/suff  —  *krā̆, *-(á)kra    [< Q ho (Ety:360) vs. HO- (WJ:368) (vocalic model sha = yo, yó)]
GREEDY  —  adj  —  *bol(o)g, *bol-g/k-osh    [< *milik-ā (Q milca)]
HIDDENNESS, VEIL; TO LAY HIDDEN  —  n/v  —  *bâsh-    [< MUY (model RUY = V. rush- = ghâsh)]
NAKED, BARE  —  adj  —  *krúlk / *kralk    [< Gn. hulc id.] : cp. #shar(k) "old"
NAME  —  n  —  *gâm/gûm; *gish(-ai, -u(m)b) (*ag(V)sh-)    [< Gn. gôm (#1); Q essë & Qe. ais(t-) (#2)] : *-u(m)b = CEld. *-mā
OATH, PLEDGE  —  n  —  *g(h)áz-(a)g, -ug / *ag(h)azg    [< Q vanda] : assuming azog = AN-AD (Q anda), similar to gol(ug) = ÑGOL-OD
ONLY, SOLELY  —  adv  —  *(a)shai (: Q rië); *sha ash-Vz¹    [syn. #2 with #-(V)z, -zu- as an abstract suffix instead of -um] : ¹ V = some connecting vowel; not /e/
OPEN vs. SMOOTH  —  adj  —  *hā̆d / *hū̆d    [< Q láta vs. LATA (model bag = múko); also note Qe., Gn. "open space"]
PINE; FIR  —  n  —  *skā̆g- [added to an element meaning 'tree'?]    [< Qe. súkë (id.)]
REMARK  —  n  —  *snar-ak, -uk    [< Qe. nark (model uruk = Qe. ork)]
RIPE  —  adj  —  *bár(z)-    [< Gn. marn id.]
RIVER  —  n  —  *g(r)ál(o)b ~ *g(r)íl(u)b    [< Q celumë]
ROOT  —  n  —  *t(hr)aga, *daga    [< Qe. tarka id.] : see explanation following SHOW
ROUNDNESS, GLOBE  —  n  —  *g(r)úrz, *unkúrz, -u(m)    [< Q corn-]
SHOW  —  v  —  *dazb- / *duzb- (*d- pro *(s)t-¹)    [< TAN] : ¹ per s-naga = *norokā ; s-har- = Gn. hor- (yet with primary plosives one should consider durb- [TUR] &al.)
SINK, SET  —  v  —  *snant-    [< Q, Qe. núta-]
SMART  —  adj  —  *krazog    [< *khanadā (Q handa)]
STRAY, WANDER  —  v intr  —  *bosk- / *bisk- / *..sh(n)-    [< MIS]
SUMMON  —  v  —  *u-kramb- / *u-krumb-    [< Q na-ham-]  
SWORD, BLADE  —  n  —  *shag-ar, -ra    [< Ad. zagar]
TEAR (SHED)  —  n  —  *snai, *(az)ai    [< Q, Qe. nië]
THING, AFFAIR  —  n  —  *snatû, *snût    [< Q. nat]
THROW, HURL  —  v tr  —  *krant- / *krunt-    [< KHAT] : compare krimp- (probably from HEPE or KHAP)
TRACK, RUT  —  n  —  *snâ    [< Gn. drô (model snaga = drog; see SHOW post-note)]
TROOP  —  n  —  *okrosh ~ *(u)krúsh ~ *krosh(-l-, -gh)-    [< KHOTH/Qe. hossë, Gn. hothri]
WHITE, PALLID  —  adj  —  *snonk-, *snoz-(o)g(h-), -gu(b)    [< *ninkwi ]
WINTER  —  n  —  *skor-a(u)g [o/u/i], -gha(i), *skorgh-(a)u    [< *s'rīwē] : one can also suggest *(a-, ag-)shálg [+ optional abstract suffix] based on Qe. yel(d-), yelin (< DYELE)


Isolatable Black Speech suffixes :
      #-ai    equatable with Q. -ië (lië, Ad. lâi = B.S. hai)
      #-ak    in the name Ufthak; given the LotR plot-point, one is greatly tempted to liken this to a passive participle or a "being somewhere" type of adjective, be it that the uf-part in the Orc-name seems rather traceable
      #-b-    seen in some transitive verbs (durb-); possibly = Q. -ya-, or indicates a strengthened action
      #-(o)b    *(especially) persons of X characteristic (glob, *Shîlob) — sound-comparison would indeed align this suffix with Q. -ima, -(i)mo, but it is apparently usable of feminines as well
      #-og    at the moment assumed to be an adjectival ending often equivalent to Q. -da — a hypothesis also augmented by the description of Azog in LotR Appendix A (as in many languages like Finnish, "tall" and "long" are the same word)
      #-(o)l    an agental suffix in Gorgol (translated as "Butcher", LB:350)
      #-(o)sh    an adjectival ending (per Tolkien's translation of Saruman-glob búbhosh in PM:83); in light of #ronk "pool", this suffix might also correspond (Orc-colloquially) to Q. -issë as a variant of *-ish (Grish- < (KI)RIS?)
      #-(u)g    (1) denotes artificial achievements like lûg (also appears fittingly in nazg); (2) a possible plural marker for nouns : -(u)g, 3rd-Age *-(u)gh [Q. -ar, -or], vs. an infixed -u- (< golug) — another plausible Npl. suffix being #-(u)l / -(i)l (< nazgûl, a plural noun and hence possibly a contraction from *nazg+gûl-Vl; cp. the plural suffix in múmak-il and cubud-il [PM:59])
      #-ûk    "all (of); -ful"; also forms adjectives (which can be used as names, like Uglúk) as the apparent equivalent of PE *-ikwā and its variations




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